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This is why you need to pull up the roots when you weed out dandelions. Removing the top parts will not kill them; it will barely even slow them down.
This is a time-lapse video of a common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) growing after some serious trauma to the plant.
First, I transplanted a young wild dandelion plant into a pot. A couple days later, I cut all of the leaves off of the top, which mostly grew back within days. I then cut the entire shoot of the dandelion off, leaving only the root system.
I traumatized the plant again and again, similar to how a gardener might weed their garden.
However, after all the trauma and the final lopping off of its entire shoot system (no nodes appeared to be left), it still grew back. In fact, this video covers the span of exactly one month, starting from the final lopping off of the top. So, in a month, the entire thing not only bounced back, but exploded in growth.
At the beginning of the video, I’m fairly certain that the root system produced some callus tissue (undifferentiated tissues, similar to ‘stem cells’) which resulted in the erratic and explosive growth in multiple spots on the ‘stump’.
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